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Days Inventory Outstanding Formula, Example What is DIO?

turnover ratio
raw materials

That means we can easily say that day sales of inventory are one of the cash conversion cycle stages, which translates raw materials into cash. From our starting period to the final year of the forecast , we can see how our company’s inventory balance has increased by $20 million to $26 million. For purposes of simplicity, we are using the ending inventory balance in our formulas. But if you wanted to use the average inventory balance, it would just be the sum of the beginning and ending inventory balance divided by two. Note that the average between the beginning and ending inventory balance can be used for both the calculation of inventory turnover and DIO. For purposes of forecasting, inventory is ordinarily projected based on either inventory turnover or days inventory outstanding.

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Days Inventory Outstanding measures the number of days it takes on average before a company needs to replace its inventory. Beginning inventory is the book value of a company’s inventory at the start of an accounting period. It is also the value of inventory carried over from the end of the preceding accounting period. Inventory turnover is a financial ratio that measures a company’s efficiency in managing its stock of goods. A stock that brings in a highergross marginthan predicted can give investors an edge over competitors due to the potential surprise factor. Conversely, a low inventory ratio may suggest overstocking, market or product deficiencies, or otherwise poorly managed inventory–signs that generally do not bode well for a company’s overall productivity and performance.

There’s the metric “as of” a particular date, such as the end of the fiscal year, where the average inventory value is equal to the final inventory value as of the end date. So a high DIO means your resources are sitting dormant in inventory that’s not selling. DIO finance implications include the effectiveness of allocated capital. If you have a high DIO measure, then your sales could be lagging, or you could be buying too much inventory at once. Days inventory outstanding is a valuable and easy-to-calculate metric for your sales, inventory, and overall business health.

Better understanding of cash flow

(Remember not to diagnose a red flag solely on DII.) DII can also be used to compare similar companies in the same industry during the same time period. DII can be useful for planning purposes, providing the averages aren’t obscuring important cyclical variation. For example, if your business is seasonal, an annual average might not be helpful. It’s also important that nothing substantial be changing about your cost structure or sales environment from the beginning of the time period covered by the data until the end of the time period for which you’re planning.

operating efficiency

In order to efficiently manage inventories and idle stock with being understocked, many experts agree that a good DSI is somewhere between 30 and 60 days. This, of course, will vary by industry, company size, and other factors. A low DSI suggests that a firm is able to efficiently convert its inventories into sales.

Free Days Sales in Inventory Template

The measurement helps my xero for partners analyze what inventory is sold or used faster and understand how often and how many units need to be ordered to restock. DOI is sometimes used in sales as a brand-specific measurement to determine what brands sell and when their products are sold. Suppose a company ABC has an average inventory balance of $7,000 for its current accounting period. The cost of goods sold for the company is $80,000 for the same period. Days inventory outstanding is closely linked with inventory turnover ratio. The DIO figure tells us how long a company takes to complete an inventory turnover and the inventory turnover is the number of times a company utilizes its inventory.


Accounts receivable is the total value of accounts receivable during a particular period. Some companies will use the average accounts receivable balance during the period, while others may use the closing accounts receivable balance. The accounts receivable (A/R) line item on the balance sheet represents the amount of cash owed to a company for products/services “earned” (i.e., delivered) under accrual accounting standards but paid for using credit.

Days Inventory Outstanding Calculator – Excel Template

Using manual methods to determine days inventory outstanding and similar metrics can be quite taxing, which is a testament to the need for some level of inventory management software. Without having the finished goods in hand, the company won’t be able to sell and make money. That’s why an investor needs to look at the days a company takes to turn its inventory into sales. Conversely, another method to calculate DIO is to divide 365 days by the inventory turnover ratio.

  • If there’s miscounted inventory, damaged or lost inventory, or theft, then that will skew the DIO lower but with an asterisk attached to the number.
  • The calculation of days sales outstanding involves dividing the accounts receivable balance by the revenue for the period, which is then multiplied by 365 days.
  • Cost Of Goods SoldThe Cost of Goods Sold is the cumulative total of direct costs incurred for the goods or services sold, including direct expenses like raw material, direct labour cost and other direct costs.
  • If the company is producing its own goods, inventory should include works in progress, too.

But our editorial integrity ensures our experts’ opinions aren’t influenced by compensation. Or else, we can also take the average of the beginning and the ending inventory. To find out the average, all we need to do is add up the beginning and ending inventory, and then we need to divide the total by two. If you are a new investor, it may seem difficult for you to find out the inventory and the cost of sales .

For example, include only direct labor, direct material, and other direct inventory costs. Average inventory figure that can be calculated by adding new purchases to beginning inventory and deducting ending inventory. Accounts receivable are the balance of money due to a firm for goods or services delivered or used but not yet paid for by customers. The debt collections experts at Atradius suggest that tracking DSO over time also creates an incentive for the payments department to stay on top of unpaid invoices. By quickly turning sales into cash, a company has a chance to put the cash to use again more quickly.

That means if you’re expecting something to happen that’s going to change your DII going forward, like a new supply chain or product launch, your historical DII is going to be less useful to planners. The longer products remain on hand, the more a company’s cash is tied up in inventory. This means it takes Retailer1 about 52 days on average to clear its inventory. It means that, at the current status quo, you can expect to sell out and restock on your inventory about twice per quarter. For a retail store, a DIO of 52 provides tons of agility and flexibility to try out new products and plan for seasonality.

Instead of waiting for financial statement compilations to get quarterly or annual numbers, good software will let you generate metrics in real time for any length of period you want. Note that inventory turnover, like DII, is an average, meaning the number can mask how long it takes a business to sell every last individual item in inventory. Days inventory outstanding refers to the average span of days it takes to sell all your inventory. On the other hand, if DIO increases, the days it takes to turn inventory into cash also increases. That means the condition of the company’s working capital will also deteriorate. Closing StockClosing stock or inventory is the amount that a company still has on its hand at the end of a financial period.

Determining the days sales outstanding is an important tool for measuring the liquidity of a company’s current assets. Due to the high importance of cash in operating a business, it is in the company’s best interests to collect receivable balances as quickly as possible. Managers, investors, and creditors see how effective the company is in collecting cash from customers. A lower DSO value reflects high liquidity and cash flow measurements. The period of time used to measure DSO can be monthly, quarterly, or annually. If the result is a low DSO, it means that the business takes a few days to collect its receivables.


Days inventory outstanding and inventory turnover ratios can be linked closely. It is important to keep in mind that most companies buy inventory in bulk to avail discounts from suppliers. It means the average inventory figure can fluctuate during the accounting period. DIO is calculated using average figures of inventory, cost of goods sold , and the number of days in the accounting period.

The product/service has been delivered to the customer, so all that remains is for the customer is to hold up their end of the bargain by actually paying the company. Then, we can use these figures in the formula to calculate the DIO figure. It suggests that the company’s cash is flowing in at a reasonably efficient rate, ready to be used to generate new business.




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